The pallet is a flat structure used as a base for the unitization of goods. Pallets are used to stack, store, protect, and transport materials being handled by materials handling equipment.
Identical loose pallet boards that have all been stripped form the same type of pallet and so are all the same width, length and depth. The boards will have nail holes at either end.
Bundling is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This relevant to items such as structural steel, handrails, stairways etc.
A package is a bundle of something, usually of small or medium size, that is packed and wrapped or boxed. The quantity is contained in a box. Packages are either small boxes made of thin cardboard, or bags or envelopes made of paper or plastic.
Boxes and Cartons are very widely used for the sake of economy and efficiency. Although comparatively cheap, they are able to withstand normal transport hazards and protect the contents against loss or damage.
Cases have the wall strength to support superimposed loads. They are particularly suitable when the goods are carried by conventional methods and when they are sensitive to heat, and dampness.
The commodity itself has to be robust to withstand outside pressure and compression. Such commodities might typically be fertilizers, grain, seeds, sugar, vegetables, flour, salt, dried milk.
Commodities that are baled include wool, cotton, tobacco, skins, rubber, hair, cloth, etc. Sizes of bales vary greatly with some commodities compressed into high density bales.
Parcel shipment is the shipment of small packages as single shipments from one place to another place. It is the unit used in the daily practice for sending and receiving all kinds of cargo.